Pulmonary diseases: Treatment, Diagnosis and therapy

Diagnosis :

1. Spirometry is a noninvasive test to assess lung function. During the test, you’ll take a deep breath and then blow into a tube connected to the spirometer.

2. Imaging tests include a chest X-ray or CT scan. These images can provide a detailed look at your lungs, blood vessels, and heart.

3. An arterial blood gas test involves taking a blood sample from an artery to measure blood oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other important levels.

Treatment:

Smoking cessation: The most essential step in any treatment plan for COPD is to stop all smoking. It's the only way to keep COPD from getting defective which can eventually reduce  ability to breathe.

Bronchodilators: These medications which usually come in an inhaler relax the muscles around airways. This can help relieve coughing and shortness of breath and make breathing easier.

Inhaled steroids: Inhaled corticosteroid medications can reduce airway inflammation and help prevent exacerbations. Side effects may include bruising, oral infections and hoarseness. These medications are useful for people with frequent exacerbations of COPD.

Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors: A new type of medication approved for people with severe COPD and symptoms of chronic bronchitis is roflumilast a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. This drug decreases airway inflammation and relaxes the airways.

Antibiotics: Respiratory infections, such as acute bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza, can aggravate COPD symptoms. Antibiotics help treat acute exacerbations, but they aren't generally recommended for prevention.

Therapies:

Oxygen therapy: There are several devices to deliver oxygen to the lungs, including lightweight, portable units that you can take with you to run errands and get around town. Some people with COPD use oxygen only during activities or while sleeping. Others use oxygen all the time. Oxygen therapy can improve quality of life and is the only COPD therapy proven to extend life

Pulmonary rehabilitation program: These programs generally combine education, exercise training, nutrition advice and counseling.  Pulmonary rehabilitation may shorten hos

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